Biodiversity refers to diversified biological system living in an environment. Plants, animals, microbes and humans, their natural processes, genetic differences, habitual landscape altogether constitute biodiversity. There are three kinds of diversity: genetic diversity based on the genomic distribution among the species for their survival; species diversity deals with the variability in creatures of specific area and lastly ecological or ecosystem biodiversity displays the density and productivity of absolute bio network. Great Barrier Reef and Amazon Rainforest are common examples of bio-diversified areas consisting of thousands of contrasting biota.
Humans depend on flora and fauna for their basic amenities and thus develop dependable liability for mankind to maintain and sustain the available biota. Biodiversity prevents global warming, offers variety of food and provides clean air and oxygen. Biodiversity is very important because it enhances productivity e.g., healthy ecosystem sustains and recuperate from hazardous disasters; the more the plants, the more the crops and harvests; wetlands filter pollutants; sapro trophic bacteria feed on dead organic matter, bees produce honey and wax; cotton from silkworm; and earthworm (nature’s plow) acts in cleansing soil for agriculture. Further welfare of biodiversity are listed: water and soil protection, pollution control, recovery from erratic acts, climate stability control and bio geochemical cycles in ecosystem; biological uses like food and medicine, population reservoirs and plant by-products; and social uses namely cultural ethics, entertainment, educational and spiritual enrichment.
Beautiful nature is forever enjoyed no matter the size and ardor of species. Conservation and protection of biodiversity becomes essential as well as needed because of its beneficial properties. Loss of biodiversity is the major threat to ecosystem, which affect the world’s economy and lives of nature dependent mortals. The threats are habitat destruction by deforestation, forest fires and rainfall, unsustainable natural resources, invasion of new species, loss of renewable resources, climatic alterations, natural disruptions like earthquake, volcano, tsunami, windstorm and cyclone and pollution in air, water, soil, land and everywhere. Nature’s balance is lost because of the ill actions of humans; cutting down trees for making paper and furniture, building roads, constructing houses and developing techno-type society. Government and private agencies are always keen in protecting the reserves by constructing strategies and implementing policies to sustain the credibility with biodiversity. World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR), and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are programs that focus to maintain man-bio relationship. Self-alertness of biodiversity conservation is requisite for all and this should start from home. For example, buying organic products, avoiding animal fancy goods, paper conservation by reducing printing, recycling old paper, using cloth napkins, avoiding pesticides and volunteering for parks and zoos. Thus, it becomes the social and individual responsibility to protect and preserve our environment.
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